Kettlebell Windmill – How To and Variations To Help Build A Stronger Body

Learn all about the kettlebell windmill, how to do it properly, and its variations to help unlock your functional strength and mobility.

man doing a kettlebell windmill-01

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The Ultimate Guide to Mastering the Kettlebell Windmill

The kettlebell windmill is a powerful strength training exercise that combines flexibility, mobility, and core stability to sculpt a stronger and more resilient body.

The kettlebell windmill is a functional exercise that involves holding a kettlebell overhead with one arm while performing a lateral bend. The movement focuses on improving core strength, shoulder stability, and flexibility.

Hinging at your hips and bending to your side engages your obliques and abdominals to help stabilize your spine and prevent excessive rotation.

The exercise also targets the hamstrings and hip abductors, making it an effective compound movement for boosting strength and mobility.

The kettlebell windmill is well-known in CrossFit training environments due to its functional and full-body engagement capabilities. It is often included in conditioning workouts and as part of the skill practice in CrossFit classes.

man doing the kettlebell windmill

Kettlebell windmill – Targeted muscles

  • Core muscles (obliques and rectus abdominis)
  • Shoulders (deltoids and rotator cuff)
  • Hips (gluteus medius and minimus)
  • Hamstrings
  • Quadriceps
  • Calf muscles
  • Back muscles (erector spinae and latissimus dorsi)
  • Forearm and grip muscles

Kettlebell windmill – Proper form

You will usually perform the movement with a kettlebell, a cast iron, or steel weight with a handle, but you can also do it with a dumbbell.

Steps to follow

  • Stand with your feet slightly wider than shoulder-width apart.
  • Hold the kettlebell in one hand with your arm extended fully overhead, perpendicular to the floor. Keep your eyes fixed on the kettlebell.
  • Rotate the foot on the same side as the kettlebell slightly outward at about 45 degrees. Keep the other foot pointing forward.
  • Inhale, hinge your hips, pushing them backward as if you are trying to sit back on an imaginary stool. Keep your back straight and engage your core throughout the movement.
  • Simultaneously, bend sideways to the opposite side of the kettlebell as you hinge at your hips.
  • Slide your free hand down your leg on the same side as the kettlebell. Aim to maintain a straight line from the kettlebell down to your foot.
  • Keep your shoulder engaged, and avoid shrugging or collapsing your shoulder during the movement. Ensure the shoulder of the arm holding the kettlebell is stable and active throughout.
  • Continue lowering your body until you feel a comfortable stretch in your hamstrings and the sides of your torso. Your free hand should ideally touch the floor or come as close as possible to it.
  • Exhale, engage your core, and push through your foot on the same side as the kettlebell to reverse the movement. Keep your eyes on the kettlebell as you return to an upright position with the kettlebell fully extended overhead.
  • Ensure you inhale as you hinge at the hips and descend into the movement. Exhale as you return to your starting position.
  • Complete the desired number of repetitions on one side before switching to the other side.
  • Repeat for the desired number of reps based on your fitness level (as detailed below). Change hands and go through the movements for the other side of your body.

Recommended number of reps and sets for the kettlebell windmill

  • Beginners
    Newbies should start with 2-3 sets of 6-8 reps on each side.
  • Intermediate
    Aim for 3-4 sets of 8-10 reps on each side. Use a moderate weight that challenges your stability and strength.
  • Advanced
    Perform 4-5 sets of 10-12 reps on each side. Use a heavier kettlebell or try more challenging variations to intensify the exercise.


  • Start with a lighter kettlebell to master the movement and ensure proper form.
  • Keep the kettlebell directly over your shoulder joint to reduce stress on your arm.
  • Focus on maintaining proper alignment throughout the movement to avoid straining your back or other muscles.
  • Consider seeking guidance from a fitness professional to ensure you perform the kettlebell windmill correctly and safely.

Tips and best practices for Kettlebell windmill

  • Master the basics
    Ensure you master basic kettlebell exercises, such as the kettlebell swing and Turkish get-up, before attempting the kettlebell windmill.
    These movements will help you develop the required mobility and stability for the windmill.
  • Warm-up
    Prioritize a thorough warm-up that includes dynamic stretching and mobility exercises to prepare your body for the movement.
    Focus on warming up your shoulders, hips, and core.
  • Start with a lightweight kettlebell
    Begin with a light kettlebell to practice the movement with proper form and technique. Gradually increase the weight as you become more comfortable and proficient.
  • Focus on alignment
    Maintain proper alignment throughout the exercise.
    Keep the kettlebell directly over your shoulder joint. Ensure your arm is fully extended and stable.
    Do not lean forward excessively or arch your back.
  • Engage your core
    Engage your core throughout the movement to stabilize your spine and protect your lower back.
    Think about drawing your belly button towards your spine.
  • Proper breathing
    Inhale as you hinge at the hips and descend into the movement.
    Exhale as you return to your starting position.
    Focus on controlled breathing to maintain stability.
  • Your shoulders position
    Avoid shrugging your shoulders during the movement. Keep them down and away from your ears to maintain shoulder stability.
  • Control your descent
    Control your descent when bending sideways.
    Do not collapse or drop the kettlebell.
    Aim for a smooth and controlled movement.
  • Foot position
    Pay attention to the position of your foot.
    Rotate the foot on the same side as the kettlebell outward and point the other forward.
    That helps to create a stable base.
  • Mind-Muscle connection
    Focus on your muscles, particularly your core, obliques, and shoulders.
    The mind-muscle connection can enhance the effectiveness of the movement.
  • Know your flexibility limits
    Start with a smaller range of motion if you have limited flexibility. Gradually increase it as you become more flexible and comfortable with the movement.
  • Train both sides
    Perform the kettlebell windmill on both sides to ensure balanced strength and mobility.
  • Seek professional guidance
    Newbies to the kettlebell windmill or exercisers with any concerns about form should consider working with a certified kettlebell instructor or fitness professional.

Kettlebell windmill – Common mistakes

The kettlebell windmill can benefit many athletes, but several common mistakes can compromise its effectiveness and safety.

Below are some of the most common mistakes to note and avoid.

  • Poor shoulder stability
    Allowing the shoulder holding the kettlebell to collapse or shrug can lead to instability and potential strain on your shoulder joint.
    Keep your shoulder engaged and packed throughout the movement.
  • Lack of core engagement
    Failing to engage your core muscles can lead to improper spinal alignment and stress your lower back.
    Ensure you activate your core muscles to stabilize your spine and support the movement.
  • Overarching or rounding your back
    Arching or rounding your back during the side bend can increase the risk of back injuries.
    Keep your back straight and avoid excessive curvature.
  • Incorrect foot position
    Improper foot positioning can compromise stability and affect the alignment of the movement.
    Ensure you set up with your feet correctly – with one foot slightly rotated outward and the other pointing forward.
  • Excessive forward bending
    Overbending at your waist can strain your hamstrings and lower back.
    Focus on the lateral bend and aim to keep your hips squared to your front.
  • Holding the kettlebell too far away
    Holding the kettlebell too far from your body during the lateral bend can lead to imbalance and potential strain on your shoulder and back.
    Keep the kettlebell directly over your shoulder joint throughout.
  • Lack of hip hinge
    Failing to initiate the movement with a hip hinge can lead to improper mechanics and reduced effectiveness.
    Remember to hinge at your hips to create a proper angle for the lateral bend.
  • Speeding through the movement
    The kettlebell windmill is best performed with control and focus on the muscles you intend to engage.
    Do not rush through the exercise. Maintain a smooth, controlled pace.
  • Inadequate flexibility
    Avoid forcing the movement if you lack the flexibility to perform a full lateral bend. Work on improving flexibility, and start with a smaller range of motion.
  • Neglecting both sides
    Focusing solely on one side of your body can create muscular imbalances.
    Ensure you perform the kettlebell windmill on both sides to maintain balanced strength and mobility.
man doing the kettlebell windmill image02

Kettlebell windmill benefits

The kettlebell windmill offers numerous advantages for exercisers looking to improve their strength, flexibility, and overall movement patterns.

Core strength

The kettlebell windmill is an excellent core exercise that targets the obliques and rectus abdominis.

It requires significant core engagement to stabilize the spine during the lateral bend, helping to build a strong and resilient core.

Shoulder stability

Holding the kettlebell overhead requires shoulder stability and strength.

The windmill enhances the stability of the shoulder joint and engages the deltoids and rotator cuff muscles, helping to strengthen them.

Hip mobility

The side bend movement of the windmill improves hip mobility and flexibility.

It stretches and activates the hip abductors. These are essential for hip stability and proper movement.

Functional movement

The kettlebell windmill mimics real-life movements that involve rotation and lateral bending.

It can enhance functional strength, making daily activities and sports movements more efficient and less injury-prone.

Full-body engagement

The windmill is a compound exercise, making it a time-efficient movement for a full-body workout.

Improved Posture

Performing the windmill encourages better posture and body awareness.

It strengthens the muscles that support an upright posture, reducing the risk of poor postural habits.

Enhances flexibility

The lateral bend and hip hinge components can help improve flexibility in the hamstrings and hips.

Balance and coordination

The windmill challenges balance and coordination. It requires stability in the shoulder and hip joints while performing the lateral bend.

Increased grip strength

Holding the kettlebell overhead challenges the forearm and grip muscles. That can lead to increased grip strength over time.

Injury prevention

Strengthening the core and improving stability in the shoulders and hips with exercises like the kettlebell windmill can help prevent injuries related to poor posture, weak core muscles, and imbalanced movement patterns.

Scalable exercise

You can adapt the windmill to suit different fitness levels and abilities by adjusting the kettlebell weight or range of motion. That makes the exercise accessible to a wide range of exercisers.

Mind-Muscle connection

Performing the kettlebell windmill with focus and control promotes an effective mind-muscle connection. That can help improve movement efficiency and body awareness.

Kettlebell windmill limitations

While the kettlebell windmill offers numerous benefits, it also has some limitations.

  • Complexity
    The kettlebell windmill is a relatively advanced exercise that requires proper technique and body awareness.
    Novices or those with limited mobility might find it challenging to perform correctly.
  • Shoulder mobility
    Exercisers with shoulder mobility issues or pre-existing shoulder injuries should approach the kettlebell windmill cautiously.
    The exercise places significant stress on the shoulders and may exacerbate existing problems.
  • Lower back concerns
    People with lower back issues or a history may struggle with the exercise.
    The lateral bending movement can stress the lower back if proper core engagement and form are not maintained.
  • Wrist and grip strain
    Holding a kettlebell overhead requires wrist stability and grip strength.
    Exercisers with wrist or grip issues may find the exercise uncomfortable or challenging.
  • Flexibility requirements
    The kettlebell windmill involves a significant side bend, which demands flexibility in the hamstrings and hips.
    Athletes with limited flexibility may struggle with the full range of motion.
  • Unilateral focus
    The kettlebell windmill is a unilateral exercise. That means it works one side of the body at a time.
    While this can help address strength imbalances, it may not be the most efficient option for strength gains.
  • Equipment needed
    The exercise requires a kettlebell or a suitable alternative, which might not be available to everyone.
    Access to proper equipment could be a limitation for some.
  • Learning curve
    Properly learning the kettlebell windmill can take time and practice.
    Beginners might need guidance from a qualified instructor.
  • Not ideal for cardiovascular conditioning
    The kettlebell windmill is not the best for cardiovascular conditioning.
    Exercisers looking for intense cardiovascular workouts might need to supplement the windmill with other exercises or activities.

Kettlebell windmill variations

Kettlebell variations allow you to challenge your body and prevent workout plateaus. They allow you to target different muscle groups and movement patterns differently.

Incorporating different kettlebell variations into your training regimen can help spice up your workouts and keep them engaging and diverse. That can help give better results and a well-rounded fitness experience.

Below are some popular kettlebell windmill variations.

One-Arm Kettlebell Windmill

One-Arm Kettlebell Windmill is the standard kettlebell windmill, as described earlier.
You hold the kettlebell overhead with one arm and perform the lateral bend.

The Bodyweight Windmill is a variation that does not involve any external weights. Instead, it relies solely on bodyweight resistance to perform the lateral bend and hip hinge movement.

It involves standing with your feet slightly wider than shoulder-width apart and raising one arm overhead, fully extended. Engage your core and maintain stability through your shoulders and hips, just like the weighted versions, as you perform the lateral bend and hip hinge.

The Bodyweight Windmill targets similar muscles as the traditional kettlebell windmill. It is suitable for exercisers who prefer bodyweight training or have no access to a kettlebell or dumbbell.

Two-Arm Kettlebell Windmill

In this variation, you hold a kettlebell in each hand.

  • Extend both arms fully, one pointing upward and the other downward.
  • Bend laterally in the same direction as the downward-pointing kettlebell while looking at the weight in the other arm. Ensure your arms stay straight and allow the kettlebell to follow your movement.
  • Continue the side bend until the kettlebell touches the floor.
  • Reverse the movement to return to the standing position.
  • Repeat for the desired number of reps.
  • Switch sides and go through the movement with the other side.

The variation adds an extra challenge to your core and shoulder stability.

Bottoms-Up Kettlebell Windmill

The variation involves holding the kettlebell upside down, with the bottom of the weight facing the ceiling.
You then bend sideways until your fingers touch the floor.

The unstable weight increases the demand on your shoulder stability and grip strength.

Kettlebell Windmill to Press

The Kettlebell Windmill to Press is an advanced variation that combines two powerful exercises into a seamless movement. It is a variation that adds a press to the windmill.

The variation challenges your shoulders and promotes full-body coordination.

  • Start with the traditional Kettlebell Windmill and perform the lateral bend and hip hinge, ensuring you engage your core and shoulders.
  • Bend your elbow toward your side and lower the kettlebell.
  • Once your elbow is bent fully, press the weight back upward until you lock out your arm.
  • Reverse the movement by lifting your body to an upright position with arms fully stretched and the kettlebell pointing upward. Ensure you keep your spine straight.

Half Kneeling Kettlebell Windmill

The Kneeling Kettlebell Windmill is a variation that adds an extra challenge and targets different muscle groups.

  • Instead of standing, perform the windmill from a kneeling position.
  • Kneel on one knee, with the other foot planted firmly on the floor.
  • Hold the kettlebell overhead with one arm fully extended
  • Do the lateral bend and hip hinge while keeping your core engaged and maintaining stability through your shoulders and hips.

The kneeling position requires increased hip flexibility and activation of the glutes and hip stabilizer muscles.

The variation provides a unique opportunity to focus on unilateral strength and mobility while improving balance and stability.

It is an effective kettlebell windmill exercise for exercisers seeking to enhance their core strength, shoulder stability, and hip mobility in a different and challenging way.

Split Stance Kettlebell Windmill

The Split Stance Kettlebell Windmill is a variation that introduces a split stance position, adding an extra dimension to the exercise.

  • It involves assuming a split stance with one foot positioned forward and the other back, creating a stable base for the movement.
  • Hold the kettlebell overhead with one arm and perform the lateral bend and hip hinge, maintaining core engagement and stability throughout the exercise.

The split stance requires additional balance and stability, making it an effective way to challenge your core and improve hip mobility.

This variation targets similar muscle groups as the standard Kettlebell Windmill, such as the core, shoulders, and hips, while also engaging the glutes and stabilizer muscles in the legs.

It can benefit exercisers looking to enhance their functional strength, balance, and coordination.

Dumbbell Kettlebell Windmill

The Dumbbell Kettlebell Windmill is a variation that allows you to perform the windmill movement using a dumbbell instead of a kettlebell.

It involves holding a dumbbell in one hand with your arm fully extended overhead, just like in the traditional kettlebell windmill.

  • You maintain the same core engagement and stability principles as the kettlebell version throughout the movement.
  • The dumbbell provides a different grip and weight distribution. Thus, it challenges your grip strength and shoulder stability differently.

It can be a suitable alternative for those who do not have access to a kettlebell or prefer using dumbbells in their workouts.

Who should do the Kettlebell Windmill?

The kettlebell windmill is a valuable exercise suitable for exercisers with moderate strength, stability, and mobility levels.

  • Intermediate to advanced exercisers
    The kettlebell windmill involves complex movements that require body awareness and stability.
    It is best suited for athletes with some kettlebell or strength training experience.
  • Those with sufficient shoulder mobility
    The kettlebell windmill requires good shoulder mobility.
    Athletes with restricted shoulder mobility or pre-existing shoulder issues should approach the exercise cautiously or seek professional guidance.
  • Individuals with good core strength
    The windmill places a significant demand on the core muscles for stabilization. Those with a foundation of core strength will benefit most from the exercise.
  • People with adequate hip flexibility
    The side bend in the windmill requires good hip flexibility, especially in the hamstrings and hip abductors. Athletes with limited hip flexibility should start with modifications and work on improving their range of motion over time.
  • Exercisers seeking core and shoulder stability
    The kettlebell windmill is an effective exercise for building core strength and shoulder stability, making it valuable for those who want to improve these areas.
  • Athletes and functional fitness enthusiasts
    The windmill’s rotational and lateral movement patterns mimic real-life activities, making it relevant for athletes and exercisers seeking functional fitness.
  • Those looking for full-body training
    The kettlebell windmill engages multiple muscle groups simultaneously, offering a full-body workout in a single exercise.

Final words from LiveLIfe

The Kettlebell Windmill’s versatility allows you to tailor your workouts to suit your fitness level and goals, making it suitable for novices to seasoned athletes.

Incorporating the exercise into your fitness regimen can provide a holistic approach to strength and mobility training, helping to improve functional fitness and physical performance in various activities. Gradually challenge yourself with different variations and weights to help you build a resilient and well-toned body.

  1. Vancini RL, Andrade MS, Rufo-Tavares W, Zimerer C, Nikolaidis PT, de Lira CAB. Kettlebell exercise as an alternative to improve aerobic power and muscle strength. J Hum Kinet. 2019;66:5–6. doi:10.2478/hukin-2018-0062

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